CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (KALIMAT BERSYARAT ATAU PENGANDAIAN)

Posted by on 24 February 2015 - 9:58 PM

Conditional sentences adalah kalimat bersyarat atau kalimat pengandaian. Kalimat bersyarat atau pengandaian umumnya dapat diungkapkan dengan menggunakan klausa "if" atau "jika".

Suatu kalimat bersyarat terdiri dari dua klausa yaitu klausa utama (main clause) dan klausa syarat (if clause or conditional clause). Suatu klausa utama hanya akan bernilai benar atau tercapai jika klausa syarat telah terpenuhi.

Selanjutnya, kita dapat menarik suatu kesimpulan berdasarkan kalimat bersyarat yang digunakan. Dalam penulisannya, kita dapat meletakkan klausa utama di awal atau di akhir kalimat.

Dalam bahasa Inggris, ada tiga jenis atau tipe kalimat bersyarat yaitu tipe 1, tipe 2, dan tipe 3 yang akan kita dibahas melalui tabel dan diagram di bawah ini.

Seperti yang terlihat pada diagram di bawah, kalimat bersyarat (conditional sentences) terdiri dari tiga tipe yang memiliki karakter masing-masing yang berbeda.

Conditional sentences
Berikut disajikan tabel yang menunjukkan ciri-ciri dari masing-masing tipe kalimat bersyarat beserta kesimpulannya (meaning).

If clause Main Clause Meaning
I. If Simple Present
S + V1-s/es
S + is/am/are
Simple Future
S + will/shall + inf
S + will/shall be
Masih mungkin terjadi.
Maybe, Perhaps,
Probably, Possibly.
Example :
If I have much money, I will buy those motorcycles.
Maybe I have much money
and buy those motorcycles.
II. If Simple Past
S + V2
S + were
Past Future
S + would/should + inf
S + would/should + be
Simple Present
S + V1-s,es/ is,am,are
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
 I would have the computer if the price were cheaper.
I don't have the computer.
The price is not cheaper.
III. If Past Perfect
S + had + V3
S + had + been
Past Future Perfect
S + would/should + have +V3
S + would/should + have + been
Simple Past
S + V2/was/were
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
If She had stayed with me last night,
She wouldn't have been so lonely.
She stayed with another man.
She was lonely.

Note !:
Pada tipe 2, untuk if clause tidak digunakan tobe "was". Apapun subjeknya baik itu jamak maupun tunggal, digunakan "were". Sedangkan, pada kesimpulan atau arti (meaning) tetap digunakan "was" dan "were".

Penggunaan :
  1. Type 1
    Digunakan untuk membicarakan sebuah kemungkinan yang belum terjadi sehingga masih ada kemungkinan akan terjadi. Type 1 juga dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan fakta umum. Ketik berbicara tentang fakta umum, biasanya digunakan main clause dalam bentuk simple present juga. Kita juga dapat menggunakan conditional tipe 1 dengan kalimat perintah seperti contoh pada nomor tiga di bawah ini.

    Example :
    • If the weather is fine, we will go out for a walk (menyatakan sebuah kemungkinan).
    • If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three, the number is divisible by three (Fakta).
    • If you meet my brother, please tell him that I need to talk to him (menyatakan perintah).

  2. Type 2
    Digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang kejadian sekarang (present) yang berlawanan dengan kalimat pengandaiannya. Dengan kata lain, kalimat pengandain tersebut memiliki arti atau kesimpulan yang berlawanan.

    Example :
    • If I became president, I would change the social security system (meaning : I don't become president).
    • If Lia were ready, She would be much more confident (meaning : Lia is not ready, so she is not confident).

  3. Type 3
    Digunakan untuk membicarakan kejadian atau keadaan lampau (past) yang berlawanan dengan kalimat pengandaiannya.

    Example :
    • If he hadn't been careless, his car wouldn't have hit that tree (meaning : he was careless and his car hit the tree).
    • If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party (meaning : you didn't warn me, so I told your father).

Penghilangan "If"

Kalimat bersyarat dapat diubah menjadi bentuk lain dengan menghilangkan "if" namun tidak merubah artinya. Berikut tabel yang menunjukkan cara penghilangan "if" pada masing-masing tipe kalimat bersyarat.
Conditional Penghilangan "if" Meaning
I. If Simple Present
S + V1-s/es
S + is/am/are
Should + S + V1 Masih mungkin terjadi.
Maybe, Perhaps,
Probably, Possibly.
Example :
If I have much money, I will buy those motorcycles.
Should I have much money, I'll buy those motorcycles.
Maybe I have much money
and buy those motorcycles.
II. If Simple Past
S + V2
S + were
Were + S + adj/adv/noun
Were + S + to + V1
Simple Present
S + V1-s,es/ is,am,are
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
I would have the computer if the price were cheaper.
Were the price cheaper, I would have the cmputer.
I don't have the computer.
The price is not cheaper.
III. If Past Perfect
S + had + V3
S + had + been
Had + S + V3
Had + S + been
Simple Past
S + V2/was/were
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
If She had stayed with me last night, She wouldn't have been so lonely.
Had she stayed with me last night, she wouldn’t have been so lonely.
She stayed with another man.
She was lonely.




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